The Art of Small Pull Requests

Why should I make my Pull Requests small?

Just like small change sets make deployments easier and decrease risk, submitting a small set of changes for review in your git pull request (PR) improves code quality, feedback, and understandability.

Have you ever gotten a PR assigned to you where changes span a large number of files and are not logically related? These types of PRs are difficult to review and the fatigue that is associated with them usually results in one of two bad outcomes:

  • Review delay – The PR is so large that it is daunting for the reviewer. They want to do a thorough job reviewing your code and providing feedback, but they know it will take a long time. Because of this they delay reviewing until they have more time. This results in delayed feedback for you and causes delays in the entire development workflow of your team.
  • Rubber stamp – Someone reviews your PR, but it’s so large they decide to quickly glance over it and then approve or merge it. This gives you a quick response on your PR, but it doesn’t give you the proper feedback. Having someone review and provide feedback on your work is the main purpose of a PR. When review fatigue occurs, and you don’t get a thorough review, your code base, team, and organization suffer.

If you care about the quality of your code and the product you’re building, then having a good peer review process for pull requests is critical. Creating small, focused PRs creates a good invitation to your reviewer to provide quality feedback.

Smaller PRs usually result in:

  • Improved code quality
  • Better feedback
  • Faster feedback
  • Increased understandability
  • Better communication (with team members)

How do I make my Pull Requests small?


A PR should have a singular focus. It should do one thing and do it well. The best PRs focus on a single artifact in the repository and the tests to support the change being made to that artifact. If a change needs to span multiple artifacts, that’s ok, but it’s best to break the changes down to the smallest increment where it can logically stand on its own and be understood by the reviewer.


Typically, as developers are given a task that would result in a fairly large unit of work. Issues that are assigned to you may require coding an entire feature. In total this will usually require changes or additions of a large set of files. The amount of change required is proportional to the overall size of the original task. This means you will need to decompose this larger task into smaller tasks to keep the amount of code small and the PR focused.

Most developers are used to doing this to help them understand and work on their tasks, but they may not be thinking about it from a code review perspective. Being able to decompose tasks into small sets of changes that build on one another and leave the code base in a fully working state is an important part of creating PRs that are easy to review.

Self Reflection

No I don’t mean reflecting on the meaning of life or your own existence or anything like that. I mean self-reflecting on the code you just wrote and are about to submit to your peer for review. Look over the code carefully and consider how easy it will be for them to review. Is the code readable? Are the diffs easy to understand? Is it small enough to be reviewed quickly? Does the change make sense on it’s own?

TipWrite a PR that you would like to review. Pretend you’re the reviewer and look at the PR from their perspective. As you prepare the PR, take the time to review it yourself. Is it easy to understand and quick to review? This type of self-reflection on your work is helpful to your reviewer and may even help you find issues or improvements for the changes before you even submit them for review.


Sometimes when you decompose a task into smaller parts, it can be difficult to understand the change you are proposing in the PR without some context of the larger task. This is where the PR comment that describes the change you are proposing is important. Explain why you’re making the change, the overall motivations behind it and the actual modifications you are making. If there is something unusual about your solution or you chose to do something non-standard, the PR description is a great place to document this fact. A well-crafted PR description goes a long way towards helping the reviewer understand the motivations for the change. It also will help future you and others who may need to review the changes understand the context and motivations of the code change.

If you have a larger ticketing or project tracking system, include a link to the task you’re working on in the PR description can also be very helpful. If integrations between your project tracking system and git exist, then consider leveraging them.

Tip – Develop a PR template for your project that encourages team members to include details about the motivations for the change and details of the modifications that are being made. Determine standards that will help your team craft meaningful and understandable change descriptions.

Why is it so difficult?

Submitting small PRs has so many benefits, why would we ever submit a large request? The reason is that it usually takes more discipline and planning to create small PRs. However, just like anything else, with a little bit of effort you can turn this discipline into a habit where it becomes your normal process to create small well-defined PRs.

Trunk based development

If you are working in a trunk based repository, then your feature branches are usually short-lived and your master branch needs to always be deployable. This is definitely my preferred workflow for git as I think it improves team collaboration and decreases merge conflicts (but that’s a topic for another article). When working in this type of environment, it might seem difficult to create a small PR that is only part of a larger feature. If you’re only building part of a feature, how could the change be useable and how do you ensure it doesn’t break anything else?

There are a couple of good ways to handle this scenario:

  • Dependency chain – Work on your PR, starting with the lowest dependencies first. Make sure that your PR stands on its own by creating a PR for the lowest levels first. That way it will compile, and you can add the code that depends on those files later.
  • Feature flags – Use feature flags to disable the new feature until all it is complete and fully functional.
  • Delayed wire-up – If you’re using dependency injection then you can prevent new artifacts from being used at runtime by simply not wiring them up. This can be especially effective if you are working on an artifact that replaces an existing one and can even be combined with feature flags (only wire-up the new dependency if feature flag).

Shared Responsibility

This happens when you need to work on code that depends on something someone else is working on. It’s tempting to work on the entire feature as you wait for the other person to finish their work. However, this will often lead to a large unfocused PR (not what we want). It’s ok to continue working on your feature as you wait for the dependent code, but you want to be able to break this work up into small focused changes that you can have reviewed. There are a couple of strategies for doing this and they overlap with the approaches above. You can use feature flags and delayed wire-up to allow incorporating the changes into the main branch without impacting the overall application.

If you’re using dependency injection then you should be able to leverage an interface or a mock dependency as a way to define the interactions with the work of the other developer. You need to agree on this interface before beginning work on your feature. This will be the specification that you and the other developer work towards.


The most egregious and common reason for creating large PRs is that you’re trying to build something and you’re not sure how to architect it. That means you will be building multiple prototypes and most likely throwing away some of this work as you close in on a working solution. Usually this leaves you with a working skeleton of the feature that spans multiple layers of the application and is definitely not focused. The normal tendency is to finish coding this prototype, complete all the tests at each layer, and submit as a PR. Unfortunately, this usually results in a large PR that is very difficult to review.

Sometimes you’re trying to build something and you’re not sure how it should work. Maybe it needs to do something that hasn’t been done before in your project. Maybe you’re new on the team and not that familiar with the project so you’re still learning how to build features in it. Whatever the reason, prototyping is often necessary. After all software development is all about discovery. Often to see if this prototype is going to work you have to build out a working model. This usually means building a feature across layers of the application (database, domain, ui), requiring changes to relatively large number of files. This type of prototyping is normal and expected. It’s ok to build out the scaffolding for an entire feature and make sure what you’re doing is going to work. It’s not ok to go back to a quickly built prototype, throw some tests on top of it, and submit a giant PR.

You shouldn’t consider any of this work as complete or ready to be merged. Once you have a prototype you think will work, you may want to create a Draft PR so that other members of your team can provide feedback. Note: A Draft PR cannot and should not be merged. It’s just for review and feedback.

Once you have your prototype working and you and your team feel this is the right way to proceed, then you can start working on the feature in earnest. The easiest way to start creating small PRs is to start at the lowest level dependency in your prototype. If this is a typical Ui->Domain->Database project, then this would probably be an artifact in the data layer.

Once this artifact and its associated tests are complete, you’re ready to submit your first PR to be considered for merging. This is where Git’s separation of the working and staging areas really helps you. You can stage and commit only the artifacts that are ready to be reviewed (excluding all the other parts of the prototype). Once you’ve committed these changes you should verify that this change compiles, lints, passes all tests, and any other build pipeline checks you may have in place. An easy way to do this is to use the git stash feature. If the changes you want to submit for a PR have been committed, then you can save you current work and clear it from the working directory using Git stash.

Once you’ve stashed you only have the changes in your working directory that have been committed. In this case that is the work on the lowest level artifacts that you are planning to commit. At this point you should run your entire build pipeline against this change locally to make sure it passes all of your coding, compilation, linting, and testing standards. Then you can push this branch and issue a PR for your artifact and its associated tests (assuming it passes everything on the build server).

Tip – Utilize Git’s staging area and index to create small focused PRs by selecting just the file changes you need.

At this point you just need to rinse, wash, repeat this same set of steps at each layer as you make your way through your prototype. You can create a new branch, pop the current stash, and begin working on the next changeset and its associated tests that are in your prototype.

Cross-cutting changes

Sometimes making changes to a large number of files will be unavoidable. This is usually the case when you make a change that is cross-cutting in your code base. A good example of this is changing the name of a frequently used artifact. All references to this artifact across the code base need to be corrected. Even though this change impacts a large number of files, this wouldn’t consider it difficult to review because the change is focused. For these types of changes, you want to keep the PR tightly focused on the single cross-cutting concern. What you don’t want is to have other unrelated changes hidden in all of the other file changes. The chances of a developer missing those changes increases dramatically when there are so many files to review.

Tip – PRs that contain a cross-cutting change should only contain that single change. Don’t group these changes together or hide other smaller changes in the PR.


Creating small, focused, and easily reviewed PRs isn’t that difficult, it just takes discipline. It’s worth the effort because it can have a profound impact on code quality and team collaboration.

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